It is clear that high blood sugar in long term can cause the blood vessels damage. In fact, both conditions are commonly found together. Moreover, many health problems associated with blood vessels (such as stroke, heart disease, atherosclerosis, heart attack, and coronary artery problem) are also pretty common in diabetes (a chronic health condition that closely associated with high blood sugar).
Your heart needs to pump blood around the body to keep survive. Every beat of your heart circulate blood with high oxygen & nutrients around the body, and carry waste products from around the body return to the kidneys for filtration which then will be wasted through urine.
To support the function of your heart, your body needs a mass transportation called blood vessels. They consist of 3 major types:
- Arteries – they have function to distribute blood to muscles and organs.
- Capillaries – the body needs them to carry oxygen and essential nutrients to the body’s cells and gather the waste products from body’s cells. Their size is much smaller than arteries and veins.
- And veins. For the bloods that have been filtered by kidneys, they will be carried by veins back to the heart.
As the name implies, it is blood that contains high accumulation of sugar or glucose. Normally, the body can work on its own to control and regulate the normal level of glucose in the blood.
Your body has a great powerful guard called insulin for blood sugar control.
Insulin is made by special cells of pancreas called ‘beta cells’. It is a kind of hormone that can help glucose in the blood to become easier to enter the cells of the body. Without it, the absorption of glucose from the blood plasma into the cells of your body will not run optimally, as a result the blood glucose can rise easily.
As you age, your insulin respond can decreases gradually. Therefore, the risk of diabetes increases in people over 45 of the age. The progress of your insulin to reach its resistance (familiar called as insulin resistance) can get worse or run more quickly if you stick with a poor diet and physically inactive.
Insulin resistance is a condition of when insulin doesn’t work effectively or when the amount of insulin that produced by pancreas doesn’t meet to the body needs. It is often found in diabetes. If you have insulin resistance, your body loses its ability to maintain the normal level of glucose in the blood and you are relatively easier to have high blood sugar.
However, you don’t need to get diabetes first to experience high blood sugar. For instance, eating large meals (particularly for large carbohydrates and low in fiber) at once also can make your blood sugar rise suddenly.
The exactly reason and mechanism of how high blood sugar can damage blood vessels are not known and still debatable.
But it’s clear that high level of blood glucose can contribute to result more pressure against the blood vessel walls. If left untreated, over time this can be potential to damage and hurt the arteries, veins, and other blood vessels.